"The Librarian", 1562.
"All dictionaries are made with dictionaries."
The Philosophical Dictionary
Aslanturk, S - "Chromaetesia"
Brook, T - Visual Music
Burgmer, B - "Chromatic Notation of Music: Transforming Bach and Webern into Color and Light",
Leonardo Music Journal, vol 5, 1995, pp 5‑10.
Carrà, C - "The Painting of Sounds, Noises and Smells"
Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis
M K Ciurlionis
Cohen, N S - "Beyond the Notes: Music Inspired by Art"
COLOURMUSIC - the band
"Colour Music" at the Drill Hall, ANU
Edward Cowie - British composer
Davis, A - "the open field" music paintings
Edmonds, G - Bach Cantatas Website
Gearoid Edmonds Google site
Herman, N - "Visual Music"
Korostelev, A - "Sound and Color"
Kruesi, H - "Colour Music: Music related to colours"
Lewis-Baker, D - "Blue-Green Composition #1"
"Messa di Voce"
Nikkolai, I - Liquid Music
Ox, J - "The 21st Century Virtual Reality Color Organ"
Ox, J & Frank, P - "The Systematic Translation of Musical Compositions into Paintings",
Leonardo, vol 17, no 3, 1984, pp 152‑158
De Paulis, D and van Muijiwijk, J - "Opticks: Live Performance Between the Earth and the Moon"
Peel, J - "The Scale and the Spectrum",
Cabinet Magazine, Issue 22, Summer, 2006
Poast, M - "Color Music: Visual Color Notation for Musical Expression",
Leonardo, vol 33, no 3, 2000, p 215‑221.
Rothschild, J - "On the Use of a Color-Music Analogy and on Chance in Paintings",
Leonardo, vol 3, no 3, July 1970, pp 275‑283.
Rowan-Hull, M - "Performance Painting"
Color and Sound in the Art of Phillip Schreibman
Scriabin, A - "Prometheus: Poem of Fire", recorded at the Ice Palace, St Petersburg, Feb 2009 [video]
"Visual Music: Synaesthesia in Art & Music Since 1900",
Catalogue to "Visual Music" exhibition,
Hirshhorn Museum & Sculpture Garden, Washington DC,
Thames & Hudson, London, 2005.
Smoje, D - "Colors of Bach's Music: Farbsymphonien in Jakob Weder's Painting",
Music in Art: International Journal for Music Iconography, vol XXIX, nos 1-2, 2004, pp 265-72.
Luigi Veronesi - Artworks
"Notes and Colours: The Sound-Colour Relationship in the Methodology of Luigi Veronesi" [in Italian]
Wejchert, K - "'Water Portraits': Colour Photographs of Reflections on Water Surfaces and an Audio-Visual Programme Based on Them",
Leonardo, vol 14, no 3, Summer 1981, pp 216-217.
Wells, A - "Music and Visual Color: A Proposed Correlation",
Leonardo, vol 13, no 2, Spring 1980, pp 101‑107.
"La Partie Carrée" (detail),
J-A Watteau, 1713.
Ignorant of the Truth within himself,
the fool is infatuated with books, like the
dull-witted shepherd who searches for a
goat in the well when it is in its enclosure.
Verbal knowledge is of no use for
overcoming the delusions of the world,
just as darkness does not cease to exist
merely by talking about a lamp.
De Clario, D - "Seven-ness:sub-lunar" program notes,
Heide Museum of Modern Art, Heidelburg, Vic, April-Oct 1995
"Advantage of Seven" exhibition notes,
Monash University Gallery, Clayton, Vic, April 1997
Domenico de Clario - recorded music
"duet for one voice (tomba delle cose/tomb of things)",
Glenorchy Art and Sculpture Park, Hobart, June 2013.
DeGracia, D - "Do Psychedelic Drugs Mimic Awakened Kundalini?" [PDF 49 kB]
Gunn, G - "The Magnificent Seven: the Imaginary Worlds of Domenico de Clario",
Art and Australia, vol 34, no 3, Autumn 1997, pp 364-371.
Heline, C - "The Harp of David",
New Age Bible Interpretation, vol II,
The New Age Bible Center, Santa Monica.
"Healing and Regeneration through Color/Music",
DeVorss & Co, California, 1983.
"Color and Music in the New Age",
DeVorss & Co, California, 8th ed, 1980.
Weston, D - "Music and Musical Thought of the 'New Age'",
PhD thesis, Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University, 1999. [PDF 1.6 MB]
Alderton, Z - "Colour, Shape, and Music: The Presence of Thought Forms in Abstract Art",
Literature & Aesthetics, vol 21 no 1, June 2011, pp 236-58 [PDF 401 kB]
"Colour in Art: Revisiting 1919",
exhibition catalogue & symposium papers,
Ivan Dougherty Gallery, College of Fine Arts,
University of New South Wales, August 2008
Dean, C - "The Evolution of Colour and Music in Australian Painting" [PDF 9 MB]
De Mestre, R - from http://worldwide.espacenet.com/?locale=en_EP [search terms: 'mestre' 'colour']
British Patent GB232,787 "Improvements in or relating to Colour Selecting Devices", 1925 [PDF 89 kB]
Dutton, G - "Artists' Portraits",
National Library, Canberra, 1992.
Eagle, M - "Australian Modern Painters Between the Wars 1914-1939",
Bay Books, Sydney, 1990.
Edwards, D and Peel, R - "Margaret Preston",
Art Gallery of NSW, 2005.
Gertsakis, E - "Roy de Maistre and Color Music, 1916-c1920",
unpublished thesis, Fine Arts IV, Nov 1975,
School of Fine Arts, Classical Studies, and Archeology, Melbourne University.
James, B - "Grace Cossington Smith",
Craftsman House, Roseville, NSW, 1990.
Johnson, H - "Roy de Maistre: the Austalian Years, 1894-1930",
Craftsman House, Roseville, NSW, 1988.
"Roy de Maistre: the English Years, 1930‑1968",
Craftsman House, Roseville, NSW, 1995.
McFarlane, J - "A visionary space: Theosophy and an alternative modernism in Australia 1890-1934",
ANU thesis, April 2006, especially
"7. Science versus Spirit: colour-music in Sydney", pp 176-208 [PDF 42.4 MB]
Pegus, A - "Colour-Music Rooms: Roy de Maistre and Marion Hall Best",
"Crosscurrents: Artwrite #24",
University of New South Wales, 2001
Rothenstein, J - "Modern English Painters: Lewis to Moore",
entry on "Roy de Maistre", pp 246-59,
Eyre & Spottiswoode, London, 1956. [41.8 MB]
Springford, A - "AGNSW: The Roy de Maistre Colour Wheel"
"Sydney Moderns: Art for a New World", ed Edwards, D & Mimmocchi, D,
"Colour, Light & Colour-Music", pp 19‑64,
Art Gallery of NSW, 2013.
Treacy, A - "On a Roll: Birth and survival of an extraordinary artwork",
"Look Magazine", Sept 2013, pp 12‑13,
Art Gallery Society of NSW, Sydney.
"Colour and music rolled into one"
Wikipedia - Roy de Maistre (1894-1968)
Barrass, S - "A naturally ordered geometric model of sound inspired by colour theory", [PDF 53 kB]
Proceedings of Synaesthetica '94, Australian Centre for the Arts and Technology, Canberra
Lady Campbell, J S - "Rainbow Music; or, The Philosophy of Harmony in Colour-Grouping",
Bernard Quaritch, London, 1886
ColorCube - the Color of Music
Day, S - A Brief History of Synesthesia in the Arts
De la Chambre, C - "Nouvelle Conjectures sur l'Iris",
P Rocolet, Paris, 1650. [PDF in French, 27.1 MB]
Field, G - "Chromatics: or, the Analogy, Harmony, and Philosophy of Colours",
New augmented edition, David Bogue, London, 1845. [PDF 8.1 MB]
Keyser, B W - "Science and Sensibility: Chemistry and the Aesthetics of Color in the Early Nineteenth Century",
Color Research and Application, vol 21, no 3, June 1996, pp 169‑79.
Fiorenza, N A - "Planetary Harmonics & Neurobiological Resonances"
Garner, W - "The Relationship between Colour and Music",
Leonardo, vol 11, no 3, Summer, 1978, pp 225-226.
[Reprint from Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 91, 1975, p 373.]
Hoffmann, J L - "Versuch einer Geschichte der mahlerischen Harmonie",
Johann Christian Hendels Verlage, Halle, 1786. [PDF in German, 16.2 MB]
Howell, J - "Painting with Color Scales" [PDF 46 kB]
Hughes, F J - "Harmonies of Tones and Colours Developed by Evolution",
Marcus Ward & Co, 1883. [PDF 2.9 MB]
Hunt, A A - "H-Chroma: Quantitative Tone Chroma"
Jameson, D D - "Colour-Music",
Smith, Elder and Co., London 1844 [PDF 1.9 MB]
D. D. Jameson - Colour-Music (plates) [video]
Kayser, H - "Color and Partial-Tone Coordinates",
Lehrbuch Der Harmonik, Occident Verlag, Zurich, 1950.
Klein, A B - "Colour-music: The Art of Light",
Crosby Lockwood & Son, London, 1926.
"Colored Light, An Art Medium", 3rd ed,
Technical Press, London, 1937.
Lefébure, L F H - "Bévue, erreurs et méprises de different auteurs célèbre en matières musicales"
(especially pp 125-142, on Newton, sounds and colours),
Chez Knapen Fils, Paris, 1789. [PDF in French, 9.9 MB]
LucyTuning - Ch 4: "Pitch & Colour Connections"
Macdonald, J D - "Sound & Colour: Their Relations, Analogies & Harmonies",
Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, London 1869. [PDF 2.9 MB]
Margounakis, D & Politis, D - "Converting Images to Music Using Their Colour Properties",
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Auditory Display, London, 2006. [PDF 594 kB]
Mueller, R M - "Visic: A Proposal for a True Color Music",
Leonardo, vol 32, no 3. 1999, pp 177‑179.
Newton, I - "Opticks: or, Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light",
Sam Smith & Benj. Walford, London, 1704, 1st edition;
Impression Analstaltique facsimilie, Bruxelles, 1966. [PDF 17.8 MB]
"Opticks", 4th edition, 1730
Dover, New York, 1952. [PDF 20.9 MB, missing diagrams]
NME: colour wheel made of song titles
Payling, D, Mills, S & Howle, T - "Hue Music – Creating Timbral Soundscapes from Coloured Pictures",
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Auditory Display, Montréal, 2007. [PDF 197 kB]
Southcott, J - "Glover's Intellectual Odyssey",
Proceedings of the AMEL 17th National Conference,
Australian Association for Research in Music Education, 1995, pp 83-90
Sultzbaugh, J S - "Chromoacoustics: The Science of Sound and Color",
The Rose+Croix Journal, vol 6, 2009, pp 94-132. [PDF 795 kB]
Wikipedia - Harvey Spencer Lewis
Wilmer, C - "Color-Encoded Music Scores: What Visual Communication Can Do for Music Reading",
Leonardo, vol 28, no 2, 1995, pp 129‑136.
"The Book Foole", woodcut from
"Narrenschiff", Sebastian Brant, 1494.
If on this ship I'm number one
For special reasons that was done.
Yes, I'm the first one here you see
Because I like my library.
Of splendid books I own no end.
But few that I can comprehend;
I cherish books of various ages
& keep the flies from off the pages...
Aaron's Color and Music Bibliography
Barringer, T - "Art, Music, and the Emotions in the Aesthetic Movement"
19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, no 23, 2016
Caivano, J L - "Colour and Sound: Physical and Psychophysical Relations",
Color Research and Application, vol 19, no 2, April 1994, pp 126-32.
Cassidy, D M - "Arthur Dove's Musical Paintings of the Jazz Age",
American Art Journal, vol 20, no 1, 1988, pp 4-23.
"Colour and Music",
"The New Oxford Companion to Music", vol 1, ed D Arnold,
Oxford University Press, 1983, pp 424‑432.
Darrigol. O - "The Analogy between Light and Sound in the History of Optics from the Ancient Greeks to Isaac Newton", Parts 1 & 2,
Centaurus, May 2010. vol 52, issue 2, pp 117‑155 & Aug 2010, vol 52, issue 3, pp 206‑257.
Favre, L - "La Musique des Couleurs et les Musiques de l'Avenir",
Librairie C Reinwald, Paris, 1900. [PDF in French, 2.6 MB]
Gage, J - "Colour and Culture: Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction",
Ch 13, "The Sound of Colour",
Thames & Hudson, London, 1995.
"Colour and Meaning: Art, Science and Symbolism",
Ch 9, "Newton and Painting",
Thames & Hudson, London, 1999
Gombrich, E H - "The Essential Gombrich: Selected Writings on Art and Culture",
incl "The Use of Colour and Its Effect" , interview with Bridget Riley, 1992,
Phaidon Press, London, 1996, p 161.
Gunther, L - "The Physics of Music and Color" (extracts),
Springer NY, 2012.
Hollander, R - "Light & Sound, Colour & Music"
Jewanski, J - Colour and Music (from www.grovemusic.com) [PDF 53 kB]
Kargon, J - "Harmonizing These Two Arts: Edmund Lind’s 'The Music of Color' and its Antecedents" [PDF 5.7 MB]
Luckiesh, M - "Color and its Applications",
Ch XV, "The Art of Mobile Colour", pp 312‑326,
D Van Nostrand, NY, 1927. [PDF 8.6 MB]
Purkis, C - "Listening for the Sublime: Aural-Visual Improvisations in Nineteenth-Century Musical Art"
Tate Papers no 14
Rech, A - "Music in the Time of Vermeer"
Rokeby, D - "Challenges to Intermodal Translation"
Salmon, A L - "Colour in Music",
The Musical Times, vol 61, no 925. March 1, 1920, pp 162-163.
Scott, C - "The Philosophy of Modernism - Its Connection with Music",
Ch XI, "The Hidden Aspects of Music", pp 97-109 &
Appendix I: "The Occult Relationship between Sound and Colour", pp 111-8,
Waverley Book Co, London, 1917. [PDF 11.2 MB]
Teniswood-Harvey, A M V - "Colour-Music: Musical Modelling in James McNeill Whistler's Art",
University of Tasmania, 2006. [PDF 36.6 MB]
Aschero, S - Numberphony [Spanish]
Cutietta, R A & Haggerty, K J - "A Comparative Study of Color Association with Music at Various Age Levels",
Journal of Research in Music Education, vol 35, no 2, Summer 1987, pp 78-91.
Farbood, M M & Pasztor, E & Jennings, K - "Hyperscore: A Graphical Sketchpad for Novice Composers" [PDF 398 kB]
gootar - The Mysterious Correlation of Light and Sound
JIXIS graphical Music Systems
Monteith, E R - "Colour-Music: Experiments in the Educational Value of the Analogy between Sound and Colour",
Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 39th Session, 1912-13, pp 85‑102.
Rogers, G L - "Effect of Color-Coded Notation on Music Achievement of Elementary Instrumental Students",
Journal of Research in Music Education, vol 39, no 1, Spring 1991, pp 64-73
"Effect of Colored Rhythmic Notation on Music-Reading Skills of Elementary Students",
Journal of Research in Music Education, vol 44, no 1, Spring 1996, pp 15-25.
Sargent Florence, M - Patent GB212316,"Improvements relating to indicators applicable to the teaching of music or the selection and combining of colours", 1924
Trevisan, L - "Giochi Musicali" (Music Games) [in Italian]
Wikipedia - Colored Music Notation
Wikipedia - Silent Way
Wiley, M J - Musical Colors
E H Gombrich:
So you prefer to look at pictures rather than to read books on optics?
Yes, I do.
E H Gombrich:
I'm glad to hear that.
(top) FILM AND VIDEO
Center for Visual Music
The Daniel Langlois Foundation
FLONG. Golan Levin and Collaborators
Leonardo Electronic Almanac
Lyons, A D - TSTEX time, space, texture
McDonnell, M - "Visual Music"
Pellegrino, R - "The Electronic Arts of Sound and Light"
"Cymatic Music: Towards a Metatheory of Harmonic Phenomena: My Interactive Compositions and Environments",
Leonardo, vol 16, no 2, Spring 1983, pp 120‑123.
Rekveld, J - "Light Matters"
Visual Music Award competition for new media, experimental film & animation
The Visual Music Village
Merman musician, early 14th century,
Palais de Justice, Beauvais.
Abbado, A - "Perceptual Correspondences of Abstract Animation and Synthetic Sound",
Leonardo, Supplemental Issue, vol 1, Electronic Art, 1988, pp 3-5.
Bain, M N - "Real Time Music Visualization: A Study in the Visual Extension of Music" [PDF 7.6 MB]
Brakhage, M - "On Stan Brakhage and Visual Music",
Vantage Point Magazine, 2008
Bute, M E - "ABSTRONICS: An Experimental Filmaker Photographs the Esthetics of the Oscillograph" [PDF 197 kB]
"Mary Ellen Bute: Seeing Sound"
Animation World Magazine
“Spook Sport”, 1940 [video 7’52”]
Corra, B - "Abstract Cinema - Chromatic Music"
Eisenstein, S - "Notes of a Film Director", pp 114-128,
Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 1959. [PDF 20.1 MB]
Robertson, R - "Eisenstein's 'audiovisual' cinema",
OffScreen vol 10, issue 3, March 2006.
Fischinger, O - Oskar Fischinger
The Fischinger Trust
US patent 2707103, "Device for producing light effects", 1955 [PDF 216 kB]
“An Optical Poem”, 1938 [video 7’12”]
Len Lye Foundation & Govette-Brewster Art Gallery, New Plymouth, NZ, 2009.
Lye, Len (1901-1980), BFI screenonline
Kirker, A - "The Early Years in London",
Art New Zealand 17, Spring 1980
McLaren, N & Lambart, E - "Begone Dull Care / A Phantasy in Colors”, with the Oscar Peterson Trio, 1949,
The National Film Board of Canada [video 7’48”]
Stratton, C - “Why We Owe a Lot to Norman McLaren” [video 5’43”]
“Synchromy”, 1971 [video 7’27”]
“Canon”, 1963 [video 9’06”]
Neubauer, B - "Roots: An Experiment in Images and Music"
Ox, J - "A Complex System for the Visualization of Music; including the journey from 2D to Virtual Reality" [PDF 164 kB]
Stokes, C - 1940s AURORATONE (Restored!) featuring Bing Crosby [video]
Forsberg, W - "God Must Have Painted Those Pictures: Illuminating Auroratone's Lost History"
US Patent 2292172, "Process and Apparatus for Producing Musical Rhythm in Color", 1942 [PDF 319 kB]
Stadnik, G O - "The Art of Lumia"
Survage, L - "Colored Rhythm: 59 studies for the film"
Putman, S - "The Glistening Bridge: Leopold Survage and the Spatial Problem in Painting",
Convici-Friede, NY, 1929 [PDF 854 kB]
John & James Whitney videos:
"Catalog", 1961 [7’22”]
“Matrix III”, 1972 [10’34”]
"Lapis", 1966 [9’17”]
Ying Tan - "The Unknown Art of Jordan Belson"
"Animation Journal", Spring 99
Bonet, E - "Calculated Cinema"
Collopy, F - "Timeline of colour-music machines since Castel"
"Color, Form, and Motion: Dimensions of a Musical Art of Light",
Leonardo, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2000, pp 355‑60 [PDF 77 kB]
Elder, R B - "Harmony and Dissent: Film and Avant-garde Art Movements in the Early Twentieth Century",
Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008 [extracts in PDF 606 kB]
Emmer, M - "Mathematics and Art : The film series"
Haller, R A - "First Light"
Hanssen, E F - "Early Discourses on Colour and Cinema: Origins, Functions, Meanings"
Holzer, D - "Tonewheels: Audio Visual Performance, a brief history of optical synthesis"
Keefer, C - "Space Light Art"
Moritz, W - "Color Harmony/Color Music"
El color en el arte mexicano, Mexico City, 1994
"Color Music: Integral Cinema"
Poétique de la Couleur, Musée du Louvre, 1995
Russett, R & Starr, C - "Experimental Animation"
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, NY, 1976.
Salles, F - "Imagens Musicais ou Música Visual - um estudo sobre as afinidades entre som e imagem
baseados no filme 'Fantasia' (1940) de Walt Disney". [Portugese]
Scroggins, M - "Absolute Animation and Immersive VR" [PDF 111 kB]
Vajpeyi, P - "Designing Rich Sensory Experiences with Strategies of Transformation and Augmentation" [PDF 668 kB]
"These materials consist in translations, extracts, original and borrowed comments, hints and notes; a collection, in short, which, if not answering all that is required, has at least the merit of having been made with earnestness and interest."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
Zur Farbenlehre (Theory of Colours), 1808-10.
Moritz, W - "The Dream of Color Music, and Machines That Made it Possible",
Animation World Magazine, Issue 2.1, April 1997
Peacock, K - "Instruments to Perform Color-Music: Two Centuries of Technological Experimentation" [PDF 1.1 MB]
Leonardo, Vol 21, No 4, pp 397-406, 1988
"The Ecstasy of St Cecilia" (detail),
Raphael Urbino, 1514.
Bishop, B - "A Souvenir Of the Color Organ, with some suggestions in regard to the Soul of the Rainbow and the Harmony of Light", [PDF 534 kB]
De Vinne Press, New Russia, NY,1893
US patent 0186298, "Improvement in attachments for key-board musical instruments", 1877 [PDF 245 kB]
Hallock-Greenewalt, M - "Light : fine art the sixth", [PDF 2.1 MB]
Address delivered before Illuminating Engineers' Society, Philadelphia, 1918.
US Patent 1385944, “Notation For Indicating Lighting Effects”, 1921 [PDF 508 kB]
US Patent 1481132, "Method of and Means for Associating Light and Music", 1924 [PDF 635 kB]
"Nourathar: The Fine Art of Light Color Playing", [PDF 110.5 MB]
Westbrook Publishing Co., Philadelphia, 1946.
Rimington, A W - "Colour-music: The Art of Mobile Colour",
Hutchinson & Co, London 1912. [PDF 11.1 MB]
"Method and means or apparatus for producing colour effects",
British patent GB189324814 (A) [PDF 819 kB] & US patent 0547359, 1895. [PDF 798 kB]
Rekveld, J - "alexander wallace rimington",
speech at 1895 performance,
pamphlet, Spottiswoode & Co., London, 1895
Conrad, D - "The Dichromaccord: Reinventing the Elusive Color Organ",
Leonardo, vol 32, no 5, Seventh New York Digital Salon, 1999, pp 393‑398.
Castel, L-B - "L'Optique des Couleurs" [PDF in French, 19.3 MB],
Chez Briasson, Paris, 1760.
Franssen, M - "The Ocular Harpsichord of Louis-Bertrand Castel: The Science and Aesthetics of an Eighteenth-Century Cause Cèlébre" [PDF 474 kB]
Galeyev, B M - "At the Sources of the Idea of 'Visual Music' in Russia"
Review of "Light-sound Musical Harmony"
Mason, W - "Father Castel & His Color Clavecin",
Journal of Aesthetics & Art Criticism, vol 17 no 1, Sept 1958, pp 103-16
ALEXANDER BURNETT HECTOR
The Lone Hand, July 1913, pp 240,.
McDowell, K - "Colour Music",
Sea, Land and Air, vol 2, no 19, Oct 1919, pp 417-22.
"The Art of Colour Music",
The Sydney Mail, June 26, 1935, p 15.
McFarlaine, J - "'Colour in Art' and Alexander Hector's Electric Colour Music Organ",
Art & Australia, vol 40, no 2, 2002, pp 292-7
http://worldwide.espacenet.com/?locale=en_EP [search terms: Alexander Burnett Hector &/or patent number]
Patent GB191229615A-2 "Improvements in and relating to Apparatus for Producing Music and Illuminated Spectacular Effects", 1913 [PDF 800 kB]
Patent FR485860A "Perfectionnements à la production de musique représentée sous forme de couleurs...", 1917 [PDF 328 kB]
Patent GB107767A "Improvements in the Production of Colour Music and Apparatus therefor", 1918 [PDF 376 kB]
Patent GB109263A "Improvements in and relating to the Production of Colour Music and Apparatus therefor", 1918 [PDF 404 kB]
http://www.pat2pdf.org/ [search terms: patent number]
US patent 1388706 "Apparatus for Producing Color-Music", 1921 [PDF 908 kB]
US patent 1432552 "Production of Color Music and other Luminous Effects and Apparatus therefor", 1922 [PDF 540 kB]
US patent 1432553 "Production of Color Music and other Luminous Effects and Apparatus therefor", 1922 [PDF 1.5 MB]
US patent 1728860 "Producing Color Music and other Spectacular Luminous Effects", 1929 [PDF 528 kB]
US patent 1783789 "Apparatus for Producing Color Music or other Spectacular Luminous Effects", 1930 [PDF 528 kB]
Wilfred, T - "Light and the Artist",
The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, vol 5 no 4, June 1947, pp 247-255
"Composing in the Art of Lumia",
The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, vol 7 no 2, Dec 1948, pp 79-93.
Light, Art, Lumia - a site about the pioneering work of Thomas Wilfred
Sidenius, W C & Farrell, R M - "Lumia Kinetic Art with Music: My Theatre of Light",
Leonardo, vol 15, no 3, Summer 1982, pp 188-192.
Thomas Wilfred's patents, from http://www.pat2pdf.org/ [search terms: patent number]
US patents 1749011 & 1758589, "Light projection display", 1930 [PDFs 952 & 660 kB]
US patent 1825497, "Light projection display apparatus", 1931 [PDF 420 kB]
US patent 1908203, "Light projection display", 1933 [PDF 432 kB]
US patent 1973454, "Light display apparatus", 1934 [PDF 392 kB]
120 Years of Electronic Musical Instruments 1870 - 1990
Percy Grainger's Free Music Machine
The Welte Light-Tone organ
William Du Bois Duddell and the "Singing Arc"(1899)
Abramyan, A A - "Color-Music Fountains and Installations of the Erebuni Group",
Leonardo, vol 28, no 4, 1995, pp 281‑284.
Aparicio, J - SynBody [Spanish]
Mark Applebaum Plays His Sculpture [video]
Donguy, J - "Machine Head: Raoul Hausmann and the Optophone",
Leonardo, vol 34 no 3, 2001, pp 217-220.
Edmonds, B - "Notes & Queries" incl gas organ,
"BIOS Reporter", v16, no1, 1992
Gysin, B - Dream Machine
Wikipedia - Brion Gysin
Hoenich, P K - "'Light Symphony, No. 1': A Kinetic Pictorial Artwork with Light",
Leonardo, vol 14, no 1, Winter 1981, pp 38‑40.
Hopkin, B - "Fire Music", and
Andersen, N - "Playing with Pyrophones"
"Experimental Musical Instruments", vol 10, no 1, Sept 1994.
oddmusic, including the Fire Organ
Pridmore, R W - "Music and Colour: Relations in Psychophysical Perspective",
Color Research & Application, vol 17, no 2, Feb 1992, pp 57-61.
Siver, J - Drawdio: A pencil that lets you draw with music!
Snyder, R R - "Video Color Control by Means of an Equal-Tempered Keyboard",
Leonardo, vol 18, no 2, 1985, pp 93‑95.
Stern, F - "The Rainbow Maker"
Strand Light Console [PDF 815 kB]
Yuri Suzuki archive
Watts Hughes, M - Voice-Figures,
The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, vol 42, May-Oct 1891, pp 37-44
"Voice Figures, with Illustrations"
Proceedings of the Musical Association, 13th session, 1886-7, pp 133-44.
Mermaid musician, early 14th century,
Palais de Justice, Beauvais.
Baily, R - "Image Savant"
bomb visual music [PC/Linex, MacOS 8.5]
Brech, A - "SIGCA: Integrated System of Applied Knowledge Management" [Spanish]
Carvalho, R - VISIOPHONE
Chen, A - "Conductor" [video]
Cthugha - An Oscilloscope On Acid
Design Rhythmics Sonification Research Lab
Friedlander, P - ZIP ART [Windows 95 or Windows NT]
Programs developed at GAIV [French]
Wikipedia - The UPIC System
High C: draw your music
Imaja Bliss Paint 2 [Mac OS 9, Mac OS 8, or System 7]
Tonecolor - visual music arts
Iwai, T - Nintendo's Electroplankton
"Music Plays Images X Images Play Music"
"Piano - as image media"
Leonardo, Vol 34, No 3, June 2001, pp 183‑183
Maltagliati, S - Visu@lMusiC
MetaSynth [Mac OSX]
The Music Animation Machine
Di Pasquale, P - "Sound & Color Calculator"
chromoscale [PDF 7.8 MB]
Pixound [Mac OS X only]
Ritter, D - "Orpheus"
"Interactive Video as a Way of Life"
Music Works, vol 56, 1993, pp 48-54
Sakamoto, R & Manabe, D - "Sensing Streams - invisible, inaudible"
Ignacio de Salterain
Laurie Spiegel's Retiary Ramblings
Suzuki, Y - Colour Chaser
"Looks Like Music"
"Synaesthesia" [Linex, Windows, FreeBSB]
Tunr - music streaming visualizer [iOS 8.1]
Visual Music Tone Painter
Voto, D - "Multisensory Interactive Installation"
Yau, D - "MUSICAM - an Instrument to Demonstrate Chromaphonic Synesthesia" [PDF 1.5 MB]
"But I believe that before I am at the end of this I shall have to repeat the same things several times; for which, O reader! do not blame me, for the subjects are many and memory cannot retain them and say: 'I will not write this because I wrote it before.'"
Leonardo Da Vinci,
SYNAESTHETES ON LINE
SYNAESTHESIA IN THE ARTS
Bacci, F & Melcher, D - "Making Sense of Art, making Art of Sense",
Oxford University Press, 2009.
Baron-Cohen, S & Harrison, J - "Synaesthesia: An Account of Coloured Hearing",
Leonardo, vol 27, no 4, 1994, pp 343‑346.
Berman, G - "Synesthesia and the Arts",
Leonardo, vol 32, no 1, 1999, pp 15‑22.
Bernard, J W - "Messiaen's Synaesthesia: The Correspondence between Color and Sound Structure in His Music",
Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol 4, no 1, Fall 1986, pp 41-68.
Chambel, T, Francisco, R, Neves, S & Sousa, C - "Synesthetic Video: Hearing Colors, Seeing Sounds",
MindTrek 2010, Tampere, Finland. [PDF 139 kB]
Day, S - Synaesthesia
"Synaesthesia and Synaesthetic Metaphors" [PDF 202 kB]
Denham, J - "This Artist with Synesthesia Sees Colors in Music and Paints Your Favorite Songs"
Dworak, P E - "Color Harmonies and Color Spaces Used by Olivier Messiaen in Couleurs de la cité céleste" [PDF 1.2 MB]
Flynn, E N - "Liberation of the Senses: An Exploration of Sound-Color Synesthesia in the Music of Alexander Scriabin and Olivier Messiaen" [PDF 2.9 MB]
Galeyev, B M - "The Problem of Synaesthesia in the Arts",
Languages of Design 1, 1993, pp 201‑203
"Evolution of Gravitational Synesthesia in Music: To Color and Light!"
Leonardo, vol 36, no 2, 2003, pp 129‑134.
Heyrman, H - "Art and Synesthesia: in search of the synesthetic experience"
Ione, A & Tyler, C - "Was Kandinsky a Synesthete?", [PDF 62 kB]
Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 2003, Vol 12, No 2, pp 223-226
Karwoski, T F & Odbert, H S - "Color-music", [PDF 2.6 MB]
Psychological monographs, volume 50, no 2, American psychological association, 1938
Mackay, J - "Sounding Art"
Odin, S - "Blossom Scents Take Up the Ringing: Synaesthesia in Japanese and Western Aesthetics",
Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol 69, no 3, Fall 1986, pp 256-281.
Ramachandran, V S - "Synesthesia and the Creative Mind"
"The Artful Brain", 2003 Rieth Lecture
Ramachandran, V S & Hirstein, W - "The Science of Art: A Neurological Theory of Aesthetic Experience", [PDF 161 kB]
Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, No. 6-7, 1999, pp. 15-51
Rieck-Klimek, M - "Synaesthesia Art"
Svetlana Rudenko Pianist
Sabaneev, L & Pring, S W - "The Relation between Sound and Colour",
Music & Letters, vol 10 no 3, July 1929, pp 266-77.
Smilack, Marcia - "Reflectionist - synesthesia and photography"
Steen, C - "Visions Shared: A Firsthand Look into Synesthesia and Art",
Leonardo, vol 34 no 3, 2001, pp 203‑8.
"Carol Steen, painter of sounds",
Australian Art Review, July—Oct 2006.
Dr Richard Cytowic & Carol Steen, 8/7/96,
transcript of interview, ABC Radio National, Health Report.
Steggell, A - "Mind, the Gap: Synaesthesia and Contemporary Live Art Practice", [PDF 17.1 MB]
Taylor, M - "Grapheme-colour synesthesia:" How I associate colours to letters
Turner, R & Brooks, T - "Four Senses" concert
Van Campen, C - "Artistic and Psychological Experiments with Synesthesia"
"Synesthesia and Artistic Experimentation" [PDF 41 kB]
Wikipedia - "Synesthesia"
Wikipedia - "Synesthesia in art"
Zilczer, J - "Synaesthesia and Popular Culture: Arthur Dove, George Gershwin, and the 'Rhapsody in Blue'",
Art Journal, vol 44, no 4, Winter 1984, pp 361-366
"'Color Music': Synaesthesia & 19th-Century Sources for Abstract Art",
Artibus et Historiae, vol 8, no 16, 1987, pp 01-126.
"The Angel of the Annunciation" (detail),
Fra Angelico, c1450.
...Now I could see
'The interrelationships of hues and sound:
No chance had brought me to this library.
I spied the back and edges of a folio
Aglow with all the colours of the rainbow,
In hand-painted title stating a decree:
Proof that for every colour may be found
In music a proper corresponding key.'
Choirs of colors sparkled before my eyes
And now I was beginning to surmise:
Here was the library of Paradise.
from "The Glass Bead Game", 1943.
Australian Broadcasting Commission, Radio National transcripts:
Health Report - interview with Dr Peter Grossenbacher, 18/12/2000
Ockham's Razor - interview with Professor John Bradshaw, 28/11/99
Science Show - interview with Anina Rich, 31/3/2001
Baron-Cohen, S - "Is There a Normal Phase of Synaesthesia in Development?" [PDF 36 kB]
Carpenter, S - "Everyday fantasia: The world of synesthesia",
Monitor on Psychology, Vol 32, No 3, March 2001
Cytowic, R - "Synesthesia, Books, and the Brain"
Galeyev, B M - "A Historical and Theoretical Analysis of Synesthesia Conceptions in World Psychology"
Galton, F - "Inquiries into the Human Faculty and Its Development",
J M Dent & Co, London, 1883
Haverkamp, M - "Synesthesia"
Hubbard, T L - "Synesthesia-like Mappings of Lightness, Pitch, and Melodic Interval",
The American Journal of Psychology, vol 109, no 2, Summer 1996, pp 219-238.
Ings, S - "Synaesthesia - the numbers"
Ione, A & Tyler, C - "Synesthesia: Is F-Sharp Colored Violet?", [PDF 150 kB]
Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 2004, vol 13, no 1, pp 58‑65
McCabe, M L - "Color and Sound: Synaesthesia at the Crossroads of Music and Science" [PDF 1.7 MB]
Nolan, D E - "Visual Fixations and Areas of Visual Interest in Color-Hearing Synaesthesia"
Ramachandran, V S & Hubbard, E M - "Synaesthesia - A Window Into Perception, Thought and Language", [PDF 306 kB]
Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, No. 12, 2001, pp. 3-34
Sharlow, M F - "Cortical Feedback and the Ineffability of Colors" [PDF 338 kB]
Smilek, D & Dixon, M J - "Towards a Synergistic Understanding of Synaesthesia" [PDF 111 kB]
Synaesthesia research - Sussex
Synaesthesia research - MACCS
PSYCHOLOGY & BEYOND
Damasio, A R - "Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain",
Putmann, NY, 1994.
Lindborg, PM & Friberg, A K - "Colour Association with Music Is Mediated by Emotion" [PDF 7 MB]
Palmer, S - "Visual Perception and Aesthetics Lab"
Penrose, R - "The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind",
Cambridge University Press, 1997.
"The Shadows of the Mind" excerpt
Psyche, an interdisciplinary journal of research on consciousness [archive]
Sacks, O - "Seeing Voices",
Picador, UCLA Press, 1989.
"An Anthropologist on Mars",
Picador, London, 1995.
"Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain",
Picador, London, 2007.
Searle, J R - "The Problem of Consciousness" [PDF 21.5 kB]
Spence, C - "Crossmodal correspondences: A tutorial review", [PDF 659 kB]
Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 73, 2011, pp 971-95.
Tsang, T & Schloss, K B - "Associations between Color and Music are Mediated by Emotion and Influenced by Tempo",
The Yale Review of Undergraduate Research in Psychology, pp 82-92. [PDF 201 kB]
Beard, N - "The Age of Intelligent Machines" review,
New Scientist magazine, vol 133 issue 1811, 1992, p 47
MuSE: Music Sensors & Emotion
Cariani, P - "To evolve an ear: epistemological implications
of Gordon Pask's electrochemical devices" [PDF 852 kB]
Chalmers, D J - "Minds, Machines, and Mathematics"
Hofstadter, D R - "Prelude...Ant Fugue", from
"Godel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid", Basic Books, 1979
Tal Cohen's Bookshelf
Wikipedia - Neil Harbisson
Turing, A M - "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" [PDF 90 kB]
The Chinese Room Argument
Wikipedia - The Chinese room
Wikipedia - Computer vision
The vOICe next-generation human vision technology
"The Ladder of Fire" (detail),
René Magritte, 1934.
"And being now at some pause, looking back into that I have passed through, this writing seemeth to me, as far as a man can judge of his own work, not much better than that noise or sound which musicians make while they are in tuning their instruments, which is nothing pleasant to hear, but yet is a cause why the music is sweeter afterwards. So have I been content to tune the instruments of the Muses, that they may play that have better hands."
Of the proficience and aduancement of Learning, divine and humane, 1605.